Tag Archives: COVID-19


Just call us Florence Nightingale's biggest fans
Robert Hess RN

Robert G Hess RN, a veteran nurse, reminded the public on his Instagram page how vaccinations and antibiotics altered the world.

We’ve all heard about the recent outbreaks of measles in the United States. However, you may not have been aware of how much the anti-vaccination movement has grown in the last decade. Unvaccinated school-age children have tripled in number since 2001, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)


Due to the unvaccinated population of youngsters in these areas, it is no wonder that measles outbreaks have occurred in several states. What impact does this have on our lives? On the other hand, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Texas has approximately 60,000 unvaccinated children in public schools, over 300,000 home-schooled children with no immunization records, and 100,000 school-age children who have received no vaccinations–and these numbers are rising.

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JUST IN: CVS needs pharmacists,nurses to get vaccine

CVS Health Corp. has joined the list of firms in the United States that require employees who have contact with consumers to get vaccinated against the coronavirus.


 Nurses and other representatives who associated with patients, as well as all corporate staff, must be vaccinated by Oct. 31, the company said Monday. It said pharmacists have until Nov. 30 to be vaccinated. CVS, headquartered in Woonsocket, Rhode Island, said other occupations can be included to the list requiring vaccination. The company says its workforce of a few 300,000 individuals incorporates more than 40,000 doctors, pharmacists, nurses, and nurse practitioners.


What exactly is COVID-19?


COVID-19 is an illness caused by an infection with the SARS-CoV-2 virus that was first discovered in December 2019 in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. Before the World Health Organization (WHO) recognized COVID-19 as the official name in February 2020, it was known as 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) respiratory illness.

SARS-CoV-2 is a member of the coronavirus family, which includes viruses that cause the common cold as well as viruses that cause more serious infections like severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), which was caused by SARS-CoV in 2002, and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), which was caused by SARS-CoV in 2003.

COVID-19 Vaccines Available Under FDA Emergency Use Authorization (EUA)

  • Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine (BNT162b2)
    Vaccine platform: mRNA vaccine
    BNT162b2 is a nucleoside-modified messenger RNA (modRNA) that encodes the viral spike (S) glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2. The FDA granted Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) for BNT162b2 on December 11, 2020 for active immunization to prevent COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 in individuals 16 years of age and older. On May 10, 2021, the FDA amended the EUA to include adolescents 12 through 15 years of age.
  • Moderna COVID-19 Vaccine (mRNA-1273)
    Vaccine platform: mRNA vaccine
    mRNA-1273 is an mRNA vaccine that encodes for a prefusion stabilized form of the Spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2. The FDA granted Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) for mRNA-1273 on December 18, 2020 for active immunization to prevent COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 in individuals 18 years of age and older.
  • Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 Vaccine (Ad26.COV2-S)
    Vaccine platform: Non-Replicating Viral Vector
    Ad26.COV2-S is composed of a recombinant, replication-incompetent human adenovirus type 26 vector that expresses the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) antigen to elicit an immune response and protect against COVID-19. The FDA granted Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) for Ad26.COV2-S on February 27, 2021 for active immunization to prevent COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 in individuals 18 years of age and older.

Information on Investigational Vaccines


The most common symptoms of COVID-19 include dry coughfever, and shortness of breath. It is thought that symptoms can appear between 2-14 days after exposure although there have been isolated cases which suggest this may be longer. If you develop symptoms, you should stay at home to prevent the spread of the disease into the community. Wearing a face mask will help prevent the spread of the disease to others.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), symptoms of COVID-19 include:

  • fever or chills
  • cough
  • shortness of breath or difficulty breathing
  • fatigue
  • muscle or body aches
  • headache
  • new loss of taste or smell
  • sore throat
  • congestion or runny nose
  • nausea or vomiting
  • diarrhea


The SARS-CoV-2 virus is thought to spread from person-to-person via: 

  • droplet transmission (large respiratory droplets that people sneeze, cough or drip)
  • aerosol transmission (when someone coughs or sneezes in the room, aerosolized droplets from talking and singing)
  • contact transmission (touching a contaminated surface then touching your mouth, nose or eyes)
  • direct transmission (kissing, shaking hands etc.)


The best way to prevent infection is to avoid exposure to the virus.

The most important way to prevent COVID-19 is to WASH YOUR HANDS.

Wash your hands regularly and thoroughly with soap and water (lather for 20 seconds) OR use an alcohol based (at least 60%) hand sanitizer.

Other actions that help to prevent the spread of COVID-19:

  • avoid contact with others who are sick
  • avoid touching your mouth, nose, eyes or face
  • cover coughs and sneezes (into a tissue or into your elbow)
  • clean and disinfect surfaces (alcohol or bleach based cleaning solutions work best for coronaviruses)
  • face masks will not protect you from COVID-19 directly, but can help reduce your risk of exposure to the virus, remind you to avoid touching your face, and will help prevent the spread of the disease to others
  • social distancing
  • self isolation

Boosting your immune system with dietary supplements (vitamin D, vitamin C, vitamin B complex, quercetin, zinc) may help prevent severe COVID-19.

What to do if you are sick

What to do if you come into contact with someone who is sick

Stay at home. If you have been exposed to someone who has tested positive for COVID-19, or someone who is showing symptoms of COVID-19, it may take up to two weeks for your symptoms to present. To keep yourself and others safe, you should isolate yourself from other people for 14 days. 

Risk Factors

Scientists are still researching risk factors for COVID-19 but data from China CDC suggest that the elderly, and people suffering from pre-existing medical conditions (such as heart disease, respiratory disease including asthma and COPD, or diabetes) have a higher risk of dying from the disease. There is research that suggests that smokers may be more susceptible to the SARS-CoV-2 virus. There is also evidence to suggest that people who use e-cigarettes (vaping) are at much higher risk of developing serious respiratory infections.
March 16, 2020 — A Chinese study claims to have found that people with type A blood may be more susceptible to the novel Coronavirus (COVID-19).
March 22, 2020 — CDC now includes people aged 65 years and older, people who live in a nursing home or long-term care facility, and people who are immunocompromised including those receiving cancer treatment as those who are at higher risk for severe illness. People with HIV may also be at higher risk of serious illness.


  • Remdesivir is an antiviral drug with broad-spectrum antiviral activity. On October 22, 2020, the FDA approved remdesivir under the brand name Veklury for the treatment of hospitalized COVID-19 patients 12 years of age and older.
  • Bamlanivimab (LY-CoV555) is a recombinant, neutralizing human IgG1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) directed against the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2. It was granted FDA Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) on November 9, 2020 for the treatment of recently diagnosed COVID-19. The FDA revoked the EUA for bamlanivimab monotherapy on April 16, 2021. 
  • Casirivimab and Imdevimab (REGEN-COV) is a combination of two monoclonal antibodies that work to block the infectivity of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. It was granted FDA Emergency Use Authorization on November 21, 2020 for the treatment of mild to moderate COVID-19 in patients who are high risk for progression to severe COVID-19. On July 30, 2021, the FDA expanded the EUA for use as post-exposure prophylaxis in patients who are at high risk of severe COVID-19.
  • Bamlanivimab and Etesevimab (LY-CoV555 and LY-CoV016) is a combination of two monoclonal antibodies that work to block the infectivity of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. It was granted Emergency Use Authorization on February 9, 2021 for the treatment of mild to moderate COVID-19 in patients who are high risk for progression to severe COVID-19. On June 25, 2021, the ASPR announced the immediate pause of all distribution of bamlanivimab and etesevimab on a national basis until further notice.
  • Sotrovimab is a monoclonal antibody designed to block SARS-CoV-2 viral entry into healthy cells and clear infected cells in patients with COVID-19. It was granted Emergency Use Authorization on May 26, 2021 for the treatment of mild to moderate COVID-19 in patients who are high risk for progression to severe COVID-19.
  • Tocilizumab is an interleukin-6 receptor antagonist marketed under the brand name Actemra for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory conditions. It was granted Emergency Use Authorization on June 24, 2021 for the treatment of COVID-19 in hospitalized patients 2 years of age and older.

Investigational Treatments

  • AZD7442: A long-acting antibody (LAAB) combination called AZD7442 is currently being evaluated for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 in late-stage trials in more than 9,000 participants around the world.
  • Baricitinib: Phase 3 studies are in progress to determine the effectiveness of a Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor called baricitinib (marketed under the brand name Olumiant for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis) in the treatment of COVID-19 patients. On November 19, 2020, Eli Lilly announced FDA Emergency Use Authorization for baricitinib in combination with remdesivir for use in hospitalized patients with COVID-19.
  • Bemcentinib: An AXL kinase inhibitor called bemcentinib has been fast-tracked in a UK Phase II clinical trial to study its effectiveness in the treatment of hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Bemcentinib has previously been studied in cancer patients and has been shown to be safe and well-tolerated. It has also been reported to exhibit potent antiviral activity in preclinical models against several enveloped viruses, including Ebola and Zika virus, and recent data have expanded this to include SARS-CoV-2.
  • Bevacizumab: A VEGF inhibitor called bevacizumab (marketed under the brand name Avastin for certain types of cancer) being studied as a treatment for acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in critically ill patients with COVID-19 pneumonia at the Qilu Hospital of Shandong University in Jinan, China.
  • Chloroquine phosphate: The older anti-malaria drug chloroquine has been shown to have a wide range of antiviral effects, including anti-coronavirus. Studies in Guangdong Province in China suggest that chloroquine may help improve patient outcomes in people with novel coronavirus pneumonia.
  • Colchicine: An older anti-inflammatory drug called colchicine is being studied to prevent complications of COVID-19 in high risk patients. Colchicine has long been used in the treatment of gout.
  • Convalescent Plasma: On August 23, 2020, the FDA issued an emergency use authorization (EUA) for investigational convalescent plasma for the treatment of COVID-19. The FDA determined that it is reasonable to believe that COVID-19 convalescent plasma may be effective in lessening the severity or shortening the length of COVID-19 illness patients who are hospitalized with COVID-19.
  • Dexamethasone: The cheap and widely available steroid dexamethasone reduced the risk for death among seriously ill COVID-19 patients by up to a third, according to researchers at the University of Oxford in England. The drug did not appear to help patients with less serious illness.
  • Favipiravir: An antiviral drug called favipiravir which was reported February 17, 2020 to have received marketing approval in China for the treatment of influenza, was also approved for use in clinical trials as a treatment for novel coronavirus pneumonia. On March 31, 2020, Fujifilm announced the start of a Phase 3 clinical trial of Avigan (favipiravir) on COVID-19 patients in Japan. Avigan is approved in Japan for use as an antiviral in the treatment of influenza. On April 9, 2020 — Fujifilm announced the start of a Phase 2 clinical trial of favipiravir in approximately 50 COVID-19 patients in the U.S. On June 19, 2020, Glenmark Pharmaceuticals Limited announced the marketing approval of favipiravir (FabiFlu®) for the treatment of mild to moderate COVID-19 patients in India.
  • Fingolimod: An approved drug called fingolimod (marketed under the brand name Gilenya for the treatment of relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis) is being studied as a treatment for COVID-19 at the First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University in Fuzhou, China.
  • Fluvoxamine: The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant fluvoxamine may work to prevent serious illness in COVID-19 patients who aren’t yet hospitalized according to a small study.
  • Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin: In a small study commissioned by the French government, 20 patients with COVID-19 were treated with a combination of the anti-malaria drug hydroxychloroquine and the macrolide antibacterial drug azithromycin (Zithromax). Results showed that all patients taking the combination were virologically cured within 6 days of treatment.
    Addition of Zinc May Benefit Some Being Treated for COVID-19 May 13, 2020
    NIH begins clinical trial of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin to treat COVID-19 (NIH Press Release) May 14, 2020
  • Hydroxychloroquine sulfate: It was reported in the journal Clinical Infectious Diseases on March 9 that the malaria drug hydroxychloroquine was effective in killing the coronavirus in laboratory experiments. Hydroxychloroquine was first approved by the FDA in 1995 under the brand name Plaquenil, and it is also used in the treatment of patients with lupus and arthritis. In March 2020, the US FDA issued an emergency use authorization (EUA) to allow the emergency use of hydroxychloroquine sulfate supplied from the Strategic National Stockpile (SNS) for the treatment of COVID-19 in certain hospitalized patients. On June 15, 2020, the FDA revoked the EUA.
  • Ivermectin: An anti-parasitic drug called ivermectin is currently being investigated as a treatment for coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, which is the virus that causes COVID-19. The FDA has not approved ivermectin for use in treating or preventing COVID-19 in humans. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommend not to use ivermectin in patients with COVID-19, except in clinical trials.
  • Leronlimab: A CCR5 antagonist called leronlimab has shown promise in calming the ‘cytokine storm’ in a small number of critically ill COVID-19 patients hospitalized in the New York area.
  • Lopinavir and ritonavir: A drug combination called lopinavir/ritonavir approved to treat HIV under the brand name Kaletra is being studied in combination with the flu drug oseltamivir (Tamiflu) in Thailand. It was reported on February 18, 2020 that an elderly Chinese woman, the first patient to receive the “Thai cocktail” in Bangkok’s Rajvithi Hospital, had made a complete recovery after suffering from severe COVID-19-related pneumonia. On March 18, 2020, a study in the New England Journal of Medicine reported the lopinavir/ritonavir combination showed no benefit over standard care in hospitalized adult patients with severe COVID-19.
  • Methylprednisolone: A widely used glucocorticoid called methylprednisolone is being studied for safety and effectiveness in the treatment of novel coronavirus pneumonia in a number of hospitals in the Hubei province of China.
  • MK-7110 (formerly CD24Fc): is a potentially first-in-class investigational recombinant fusion protein. It works by modulating the inflammatory response to SARS-CoV-2, principally by targeting a novel immune pathway checkpoint. Interim results from a Phase 3 study showed a greater than 50 percent reduction in the risk of death or respiratory failure in patients hospitalized with moderate to severe COVID-19. In April 2021, Merck announced the the discontinuation of the development of MK-7110
  • Molnupiravir (MK-4482): is an oral novel investigational antiviral agent being developed by Merck in collaboration with Ridgeback Bio. Molnupiravir is currently being evaluated in Phase 2/3 clinical trials in both the hospital and out-patient settings. The primary completion date for the Phase 2/3 studies is May 2021.
  • Peginterferon Lambda: A single dose of the experimental antiviral drug peginterferon Lambda accelerated the clearance of SARS-CoV2 in newly diagnosed, non-hospitalized patients according to the results of a Phase 2 study published in Lancet Respiratory Medicine.
  • PF-07321332: Pfizer announced the initiation of a Phase 1 study of PF-07321332, an oral SARS-CoV2-3CL protease inhibitor which has demonstrated potent in vitro anti-viral activity against SARS-CoV-2, as well as activity against other coronaviruses.
  • RLF-100: (aviptadil) is a formulation of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) which binds to alveolar type 2 cells in the lungs inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokines. On August 6, 2020, Relief Therapeutics announced that it had been granted Investigational New Drug (IND) permission to test RLF-100 for inhaled use in patients with moderate and severe COVID-19 in order to prevent progression to respiratory failure.
  • Sarilumab: An interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor antagonist called sarilumab (marketed under the brand name Kevzara for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis) is being studied as a potential treatment for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in patients critically ill from COVID-19.
  • STC3141: An investigational drug called STC3141 has been approved to commence phase II clinical research in Australia for the treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) suffered by COVID-19 patients.
  • Umifenovir: An antiviral drug called umifenovir (marketed in Russia under the brand name Arbidol, and also available in China for the treatment of influenza) is being studied in China and other countries as a treatment for COVID-19.

Investigational Vaccines

Several pharmaceutical companies and research organizations worldwide are involved in the development of potential vaccines.

  • AZD1222 (formerly ChAdOx1 nCoV-19) Vaccine platform: Non-Replicating Viral Vector
     AZD1222 was developed by Oxford University’s Jenner Institute, with AstraZeneca responsible for development and worldwide manufacturing and distribution. A Phase I/II clinical trial of AZD1222 began in April 2020 to assess safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of the vaccine in over 1000 healthy volunteers across several trial centres in southern England. Interim results were published in The Lancet on July 20, 2020.
  • INO-4800 Vaccine platform: DNA vaccine
    Inovio Pharmaceuticals, Inc. announced on April 6, 2020 FDA acceptance of the Investigational New Drug (IND) application for its DNA vaccine candidate INO-4800, paving the way for a Phase 1 clinical trial. On June 30, 2020, the company announced positive interim clinical data from the Phase 1 trial, with plans to initiate a Phase 2/3 efficacy trial upon regulatory concurrence. On September 28, 2020, Inovio announced that the planned Phase 2/3 trial of INO-4800 has been put on partial clinical hold at the request of the FDA.
  • Ad5-nCoV Vaccine platform: Adenovirus Type 5 Vector
    CanSino Biologics Inc. has announced that its recombinant novel coronavirus vaccine (Adenovirus Type 5 Vector) candidate (Ad5-nCoV), co-developed with Beijing Institute of Biotechnology (BIB), has been approved to enter into a Phase 1 clinical trial in China. On June 29, 2020, the company announced the vaccine had received Military Specially-Needed Drug Approval in China.
  • NVX-CoV2373 Vaccine platform: Protein Subunit
    On May 25, 2020, Novavax, Inc. announced the commencement of a Phase 1/2 clinical trial of its coronavirus vaccine candidate, NVX-CoV2373, a stable, prefusion protein made using its proprietary nanoparticle technology adjuvant (Matrix-M™) to enhance immune responses and stimulate high levels of neutralizing antibodies, across two sites in Australia. On July 7, 2020, the company announced that it had been selected to participate in Operation Warp Speed, with funding from the federal government to complete late-stage clinical development, including a pivotal Phase 3 clinical trial and the delivery of 100 million doses of NVX-CoV2373 as early as late 2020. On August 4, 2020, Novavax reported Phase 1 data from the Phase 1/2 randomized, observer-blinded, placebo-controlled trial of NVX-CoV2373 with and without Matrix-M™ adjuvant. On August 24, 2020, it was announced that Phase 2 trials had commenced, with approximately 50 percent of participants ≥60 years of age, at up to 40 sites across the U.S. and Australia.
  • CoronaVac Vaccine Platform: Inactivated
    Sinovac Biotech Ltd. announced the commencement of a Phase I clinical trial for its COVID-19 vaccine candidate to be conducted in Jiangsu Province, China. On June 13, 2020, Sinovac reported positive preliminary results of the phase I/II clinical trial. On July 6, 2020, the company announced that the Brazilian National Regulatory Agency, Anvisa, had granted approval to conduct a phase III clinical trial of CoronaVac in Brazil.
  • V590 and V591 Merck announced a collaboration with IAVI (International AIDS Vaccine Initiative) to develop an investigational vaccine against SARS-CoV-2, using the recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV) technology that is the basis for its Ebola Zaire virus vaccine (Ervebo). On January 25, 2021, the company announced that it was discontinuing the development of its SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 vaccine candidates (V590 and V591) and confirmed plans to switch focus instead to advancing its therapeutic candidates.
  • SCB-2019 Vaccine platform: Protein Subunit
    Clover Pharmaceuticals announced that the first participants have been dosed in the Phase 1 first-in-human study evaluating the company’s COVID-19 S-Trimer subunit vaccine candidate (SCB-2019) which is based on its proprietary Trimer-Tag© vaccine technology platform. The Phase I study will evaluate two adjuvant systems – GSK’s pandemic adjuvant system, and Dynavax’s CpG 1018 adjuvant combined with alum.
  • COVAC1 Imperial College London announced that it has dosed the first healthy volunteer with its COVAC1 coronavirus vaccine candidate, which has been developed using the new self-amplifying RNA (saRNA) technology.
  • GX-19 Vaccine platform: DNA vaccine
    Genexine announced the approval of a clinical phase 1/2a trial of DNA vaccine GX-19 in Korea.
  • CVnCoV Vaccine platform: mRNA vaccine
    CureVac AG announced the approval of a Phase 1 clinical trial for its mRNA vaccine CVnCoV to be conducted in Germany and Belgium on June 17, 2020, and the launch of the Phase 2a trial to be conducted Peru and Panama on September 29, 2020.
  • Sputnik V Vaccine platform: Non-Replicating Viral Vector
    On September 4, 2020, it was announced that the results of the Phase I-II clinical trials of the Russian vaccine Sputnik V had been published in The Lancet. Results showed that Sputnik V generated a stable humoral and cellular immune response in 100% of trial participants, and showed no serious adverse events. Sputnik V uses two different vectors (based on human adenovirus serotypes Ad5 and Ad26) in two separate shots to achieve a more effective immune response.
  • VXA-CoV2-1 An oral COVID-19 vaccine candidate from Vaxart, Inc. was selected to participate in a non-human primate (NHP) challenge study, organized and funded by Operation Warp Speed. The Phase 1 trial in humans commenced October 2020.
  • An inactivated COVID-19 vaccine that is effective across against all detected strains of the virus so far is being developed by the Wuhan Institute of Biological Products under the China National Pharmaceutical Group (Sinopharm) and the Wuhan Institute of Virology under the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Positive results from the Phase 1 and Phase 2 clinical studies were reported in June 2020, and the commencement of Phase 3 trial to be conducted in Abu Dhabi, UAE was announced in July 2020.
  • BBIBP-CorV Beijing Institute of Biological Products/Sinopharm announced promising results of a small trial of their inactivated vaccine candidate BBIBP-CorV in volunteers aged between 18 to 80 years in October 2020.
  • MRT5500 Vaccine platform: mRNA vaccine
    On October 15, 2020 Sanofi Pasteur and Translate Bio announced preclinical results for the mRNA-based vaccine candidate MRT5500.
  • In May 2020, the Trump Administration announced the framework and leadership for Operation Warp Speed, a public-private partnership to facilitate, at an unprecedented pace, the development, manufacturing, and distribution of COVID-19 countermeasures, between components of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), including CDC, FDA, NIH, and BARDA.
  • According to an article in The New York Times on June 3, 2020, the Trump Administration has selected five companies (Moderna Inc, AstraZeneca Plc, Pfizer Inc., Johnson & Johnson, and Merck & Co Inc.) as the most likely candidates to produce a vaccine for the novel coronavirus. HHS did not confirm or deny the report.

More information


Drugs used to treat COVID-19

The following list of medications are in some way related to, or used in the treatment of this condition.Select drug class  All drug classes  anthelmintics (1)  viral vaccines (6)  miscellaneous antivirals (1)  purine nucleosides (2)  antiviral combinations (2)  interleukin inhibitors (2)  investigational drugs (2)  RxOTCOff-labelOnly Generics

Drug nameRatingReviewsActivity?Rx/OTCPregCSAAlcohol
View information about remdesivirremdesivir4.412RxNX
View information about VekluryVekluryRateAddRxNX
View information about casirivimab / imdevimabcasirivimab / imdevimab EUARateAddRxN
View information about Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 VaccinePfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine EUA9.34RxN
View information about ivermectin Off-labelRateAddRxCNX
View information about Actemra EUARateAddRxCN
View information about bamlanivimab / etesevimabbamlanivimab / etesevimab EUARateAddRxU
View information about Janssen COVID-19 Vaccine Janssen COVID-19 Vaccine EUA5.01RxN
View information about Moderna COVID-19 VaccineModerna COVID-19 Vaccine EUA7.76RxN
View information about REGEN-COVREGEN-COV EUARateAddRxN
View information about sars-cov-2 (covid-19) ad26 vaccine, recombinantsars-cov-2 (covid-19) ad26 vaccine, recombinant EUA5.01RxN
View information about sars-cov-2 (covid-19) mrna-1273 vaccinesars-cov-2 (covid-19) mrna-1273 vaccine EUA7.76RxN
View information about sars-cov-2 (covid-19) mrna bnt-162b2 vaccinesars-cov-2 (covid-19) mrna bnt-162b2 vaccine EUA9.34RxN
View information about sotrovimabsotrovimab EUARateAddRxN
View information about tocilizumabtocilizumab EUARateAddRxCN

Learn more about COVID-19

IBM Watson Micromedex

  • SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome)


RatingFor ratings, users were asked how effective they found the medicine while considering positive/adverse effects and ease of use (1 = not effective, 10 = most effective).
ActivityActivity is based on recent site visitor activity relative to other medications in the list.
RxPrescription Only.
OTCOver the Counter.
Rx/OTCPrescription or Over the Counter.
Off-labelThis medication may not be approved by the FDA for the treatment of this condition.
EUAAn Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) allows the FDA to authorize unapproved medical products or unapproved uses of approved medical products to be used in a declared public health emergency when there are no adequate, approved, and available alternatives.
Pregnancy Category
AAdequate and well-controlled studies have failed to demonstrate a risk to the fetus in the first trimester of pregnancy (and there is no evidence of risk in later trimesters).
BAnimal reproduction studies have failed to demonstrate a risk to the fetus and there are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women.
CAnimal reproduction studies have shown an adverse effect on the fetus and there are no adequate and well-controlled studies in humans, but potential benefits may warrant use in pregnant women despite potential risks.
DThere is positive evidence of human fetal risk based on adverse reaction data from investigational or marketing experience or studies in humans, but potential benefits may warrant use in pregnant women despite potential risks.
XStudies in animals or humans have demonstrated fetal abnormalities and/or there is positive evidence of human fetal risk based on adverse reaction data from investigational or marketing experience, and the risks involved in use in pregnant women clearly outweigh potential benefits.
NFDA has not classified the drug.
Pregnancy category
Controlled Substances Act (CSA) Schedule
MThe drug has multiple schedules. The schedule may depend on the exact dosage form or strength of the medication.
UCSA Schedule is unknown.
NIs not subject to the Controlled Substances Act.
1Has a high potential for abuse. Has no currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States. There is a lack of accepted safety for use under medical supervision.
2Has a high potential for abuse. Has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States or a currently accepted medical use with severe restrictions. Abuse may lead to severe psychological or physical dependence.
3Has a potential for abuse less than those in schedules 1 and 2. Has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States. Abuse may lead to moderate or low physical dependence or high psychological dependence.
4Has a low potential for abuse relative to those in schedule 3. It has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States. Abuse may lead to limited physical dependence or psychological dependence relative to those in schedule 3.
5Has a low potential for abuse relative to those in schedule 4. Has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States. Abuse may lead to limited physical dependence or psychological dependence relative to those in schedule 4.
XInteracts with Alcohol.
Table CSA

Nurse received email saying ‘another Nigerian’ when she applied for job

Photo by Ogunyemi Taiwo

A Nigerian nurse who caught COVID while working for the NHS was sent a derogatory comment when she applied for another job in the health service. The unnamed medic, who her daughter says worked throughout the pandemic, went for a new role in the Midlands over email. But someone involved in the recruitment process sent back a reply from the GP practice in the Coventry and Rugby area which read: ‘Another one but again Nigerian’, in what appears to have been an attempt to forward the message on to another person. The exchange sparked outrage and concern on social media, with two local health organizations condemning the email and publicly apologizing.


Twitter user sxde posted pictures of the conversation on Twitter, explaining: ‘My mum has just worked as nurse throughout the pandemic, a year after qualifying. Got COVID at work. She recovered (we thank God) and went back to work. She’s now decided to apply for a new role in a different setting and this is what was sent to her by the recruiter. ‘I believe this was clearly not intended for us to see, but it confirmed what is being said behind the scenes. This is unprofessional, prejudice and incredibly discriminatory language which is against the NHS and Nursing code of conduct.’


Her mother applies for a GP practical nurse role over email and includes what appears to be a CV in the message. Then someone from an NHS body, whose signature includes the title ‘practice nurse’, appears to attempt to forward the email, but instead replies to the applicant, writing ‘Another one but again Nigerian’.


Coventry and Warwickshire Partnership NHS Trust branded the message ‘truly distressing’ and said it had raised the concerns. It tweeted: ‘This is a truly distressing message and we are sorry that something like this has been shared with your mother.  Be assured this is not our organization and it does not reflect the values we hold dear. We’ve raised with the right organization asking they contact you immediately.’ The NHS Coventry and Warwickshire Clinical Commissioning Group, which was made aware of the original tweet on Saturday, added: ‘We’ve just been alerted to your tweet and we are shocked by the message your mother received it does not reflect our values or those of the NHS.


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Nurse Jenny, who cared for Boris Johnson in ICU, resigns over lack of respect and pay for health workers

An intensive care nurse who stood at the side of Prime Minister Boris Johnson when he was hospitalized with covid-19 has resigned, citing lack of government support for health-care workers.

Jenny McGee, who has worked as an intensive care nurse in Britain for 11 years, said: “We’re not getting the respect and now pay that we deserve. I’m just sick of it. So I’ve handed in my resignation.”


Johnson, one of the first world leaders diagnosed with covid-19, spent three days in a London intensive care unit in April 2020. After he recovered, he focused praise on two nurses who stayed at his bedside for 48 hours, “when things could have gone either way.” They were Luis Pitarma, from Portugal, and McGee, from New Zealand.

“The reason, in the end, my body did start to get enough oxygen was because for every second of the night they were watching, and they were thinking, and they were caring and making the interventions I needed,” Johnson said.


He extended his thanks to the country’s National Health Service, saying Britain would beat the pandemic “because our NHS is the beating heart of this country.”

But many health-care workers say Johnson’s government has failed to demonstrate that appreciation with concrete support for the NHS.

In a new documentary for Channel 4, “The Year Britain Stopped,” McGee described the scene at St. Thomas’ Hospital when the prime minister arrived. “All around him there was lots and lots of sick patients, some of whom were dying. I remember seeing him and thinking he looked very, very unwell. He was a different color, really.”

McGee also told the program that she declined to take part in a final “clap for carers” photo opportunity at Downing Street.

“I wanted to stay out of it. Lots of nurses felt that the government hadn’t led very effectively — the indecisiveness, so many mixed messages,” she said.


Nurses, their unions and much of the British public — who in the first wave of the pandemic spent weeks clapping and banging pots for health-care workers — are upset by what they say is an insulting offer by Johnson’s government for a 1 percent pay raise.

The government has said nurses are getting a “modest” pay increase in a difficult financial environment. An opinion poll for the Observer newspaper found 72 percent of the public said nurses should be given more.

In Britain, the average yearly pay for nurses is £33,788, or nearly $48,000, according to NHS Digital. By contrast in the United States, the median annual wage of registered nurses is $75,330, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics.

A recent survey by YouGov and the IPPR think tank found about a quarter of NHS workers — or 100,000 nurses in England said they are “more likely” to leave the sector than a year ago due to concerns over pay, understaffing and exhaustion from the pandemic.

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Anger in North Dakota after governor asks Covid-positive health workers to keep working

Photo by Anna Shvets on Pexels.com

Doug Burgum, said last week that healthcare workers who test positive for coronavirus but do not display symptoms could still report to work. The order, which is in line with CDC guidance for mitigating staff shortages, would only allow asymptomatic health workers who test positive to work in Covid units, and treat patients who already have the virus.

But many feel the idea endangers the workers themselves and their colleagues. It comes as North Dakota faces one of the worst outbreaks of Covid-19 and grapples with healthcare staff shortages.

“We’re worried about somebody dying, frankly, because we couldn’t get to them in time,” said McKamey, an emergency room nurse in Bismarck.

According to data from the Covid Tracking Project, more than 9,400 North Dakotans tested positive for Covid-19 last week alone. About one in 12 North Dakota residents have been infected with the virus; nearly one in 1,000 have died. In early November, the North Dakota Department of Health reported that there were only 12 open ICU beds in the entire state.

McKamey said Burgum’s order goes against everything she’s been taught as a nurse.

“If hospital administrators start forcing Covid-positive staff to go to work, it’s going to be very scary. We’re trained to do no harm, and asking Covid-positive, asymptomatic nurses to return to work is putting patients at risk. It’s putting fellow staff members at risk.”

Nine months into the pandemic, it’s clear healthcare workers already face increased risks. Lost on the Frontline, a joint effort by the Guardian and Kaiser Health News, is investigating the deaths of 1,375 healthcare workers who appear to have died of Covid-19 since the start of the pandemic. Nearly a thirdof those healthcare workers were nurses.

McKamey described long shifts in an emergency room that has begun taking on patients overnight because other wards of the hospital did not have capacity to admit them. Nurses pick up extra shifts to cover for colleagues who have gotten sick and take on multiple critical patients at once.

McKamey, the ER nurse, said she hasn’t had time to process the stress of the last several months. She’s focused on staying healthy, gearing up for what she expects will be a difficult winter, and keeping her patients alive. “We are willing to break our backs and work as hard as we physically can,” McKamey said. “But then to ask us to come in as a potential infectious source, is just stunning.”

Now Open! Government of Hungary Stipendium Hungaricum Scholarships 2020/2021 for International Students

The Stipendium Hungaricum Scholarship Programme, by the Hungarian Government is offering international students the opportunity to undergo study of all types in Hungary for free. The core mission of the programme is to increase the number of foreign students in Hungary and to encourage Hungarian higher education institutions to attract top foreign students. The Programme is managed by Tempus Public Foundation.

Application Deadline: 15th January 2021

Eligible Countries: International. See list of countries below

To be taken at (country): Hungary

Field of Study: Applicants are encouraged to apply for study fields that are in the educational cooperation programmes between Hungary and the specific Sending Partner.

About the Award: Thousands of students from all around the world apply for higher educational studies in Hungary each year. The number of Stipendium Hungaricum applicants is continuously increasing as well as the number of available scholarship places.

The programme is based on bilateral educational cooperation agreements signed between the Ministries responsible for education in the sending countries/territories and Hungary or between institutions. Currently more than 50 Sending Partners are engaged in the programme throughout 4 different continents.

Type: Stipendium Hungaricum scholarships are available for bachelormasterone-tier masterdoctoral and non-degree programmes (preparatory and specialisation courses).

  • time and partial study programmes

Number of Awardees: Numerous

Value of Scholarship: 

  • Tuition-free education
    • exemption from the payment of tuition fee
  • Monthly stipend
    • non-degree, bachelor, master and one-tier master level: monthly amount of HUF 40 460 (cca EUR 130) contribution to the living expenses in Hungary, for 12 months a year, until the completion of studies
    • doctoral level: according to the current Hungarian legislation, the monthly amount of scholarship is HUF 140 000 (cca EUR 450) for the first phase of education (4 semesters) and HUF 180 000 (cca EUR 580) for the second phase (4 semesters) – for 12 months a year, until completion of studies.
  • Accommodation
    • dormitory place or a contribution of HUF 40 000 to accommodation costs for the whole duration of the scholarship period
  • Medical insurance
    • health care services according to the relevant Hungarian legislation (Act No. 80 of 1997, national health insurance card) and supplementary medical insurance for up to HUF 65 000 (cca EUR 205) a year/person

Duration of Scholarship: Duration of candidate’s chosen program:

  • Bachelor programmes: Fulltime: 2-4 years. Partial: 1 or 2 semesters
  • Master programmes:  Fulltime:1.5-2 years. Partial: 1 or 2 semesters
  • One-tier master programmes: Fulltime: 5-6 years Partial: 1 or 2 semesters
  • Doctoral programmes:  Fulltime: 2+2 years Partial: 1 or 2 semesters
  • Non-degree programmes:
    • Preparatory course in Hungarian language: 1 year
    • Other preparatory and specialisation courses: up to 1 year

List of Eligible Countries: For full time programmes, students can apply from the following Sending Partners: Arab Republic of Egypt, Argentine Republic, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, Federal Republic of Nigeria, Georgia, Islamic Republic of Iran, Islamic Republic of Pakistan, Japan, Kingdom of Cambodia, Kingdom of Morocco, Kurdistan Regional Government/Iraq, Kyrgyz Republic, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Lebanese Republic, Mongolia, Oriental Republic of Uruguay, Palestine, People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria, People’s Republic of China (including the Hudec scholarships), Republic of Albania, Republic of Angola, Republic of Azerbaijan, Republic of Belarus, Republic of Colombia, Republic of Ecuador, Republic of Ghana, Republic of India, Republic of Indonesia, Republic of Iraq, Republic of Kazakhstan, Republic of Kenya, Republic of Korea, Republic of Kosovo, Republic of Macedonia (FYROM is used at OSCE, UN, CoE, EU and NATO fora), Republic of Moldova, Republic of Namibia, Republic of Paraguay, Republic of Serbia, Republic of South Africa, Republic of the Philippines, Republic of the Union of Myanmar, Republic of Turkey, Republic of Yemen, Russian Federation, Socialist Republic of Vietnam, State of Israel, Syrian Arab Republic, The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, Tunisian Republic, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, United Mexican States.

For partial study programmes, students can apply from the following Sending Partners: Georgia, Islamic Republic of Iran, Japan, Kingdom of Cambodia,b Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Lebanese Republic, Mongolia, People’s Republic of China (only Hudec applicants), Republic of Albania, Republic of Belarus, Republic of India, Republic of Korea, Republic of the Union of Myanmar, Republic of Turkey, Socialist Republic of Vietnam, Russian Federation, Syrian Arab Republic, United Mexican States.

  • Applications shall be submitted to the responsible authority of the Sending Partner
  • It is important to go through all application requirements in the Award Webpage (see Link below) before applying.