American Nurses Association (ANA), formerly (1896–1901) Nurses’ Associated Alumnae of the United States and Canada and (1901–11) Nurses’ Associated Alumnae, national professional organization that promotes and protects the welfare of nurses in their work settings, projects a positive view of the nursing profession, and advocates on issues of concern to nurses and the general public. In the early 21st century the American Nurses Association (ANA) had a membership of some 150,000 nurses among its state and constituent associations.
The ANA was founded in New York City in 1896 as the Nurses’ Associated Alumnae of the United States and Canada; in 1901 the organization incorporated in the state of New York, broke away from Canada, and subsequently shortened its name to the Nurses’ Associated Alumnae. Its foremost goals were to attain licensure for nurses, establish a nurses’ code of ethics, promote the image and attend to the financial needs of nurses, and establish state laws that would control nursing practice. The latter goal was organized not on the national level but by state associations. In the early 1900s individual state associations, beginning with those of New York, New Jersey, North Carolina, and Virginia, enacted bills to ensure the registration of qualified nurses. From that legislation came the title registered nurse (RN). Only those nurses who fulfilled the qualifications defined by their state’s Nurse Practice Act (NPA) could use the professional title.
From its inception the ANA advocated for the adequate professional training and education of nurses, and it began taking significant action to make changes to nurse-training standards in the 1960s. In 1965 the organization published “Educational Preparation for Nurse Practitioners and Assistants to Nurses,” later called the ANA position paper, which states that nursing education should take place in university settings as opposed to hospitals. That was just the beginning of the ANA’s proposed—and enacted—changes made to the preparation and professional status of nurses in the United States.
The ANA is governed by a house of delegates composed of representatives from the constituency associations and a board of directors. In addition to individual members, the ANA has two organizational members, the Center for American Nurses and United American Nurses, AFL-CIO. Organizational affiliates include the American Association of Nursing and a number of groups dedicated to subfields of nursing, such as the American Association of Critical-Care Nursing, the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, and the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric, and Neonatal Nurses.
The ANA’s advocacy efforts focus on health care reform. Policy efforts of general interest are concerned with Medicare reform, the 2010 Patient’s Bill of Rights, safer needle devices, and expanded access to medical care. Issues that are of particular concern to nurses include appropriate staffing, whistle-blower protection for health care workers who report fraud and illegal medical practices, and timely and adequate reimbursement of health care services. ANA advocates pursue policy interests by lobbying Congress and federal government officials as well as state and local legislators and agencies. Attempts to improve the professional lives of nurses focus on gaining collective bargaining rights.